Great Deception in The Roman Catholic Church and other world beliefs/religions

In Acts 19 we have an account of the apostle Paul in Ephesus spreading the Gospel of Jesus Christ. He encountered quite a riot- when a crowd of worshipers of the goddess Artemis, tried to stop him. In 1 Corinthians 15:32, he refers to them as “wild beasts.” A silversmith named Demetrius, who made idols and shrines of Artemis, spearheaded the revolt. Artemis was not only worshipped in Ephesus, she was “….worshipped throughout the province of Asia and the world” (Acts 19:27 New International Version). After shouting “Great is Artemis” for two hours, “The city clerk quieted the crowd and said: “Men of Ephesus, doesn’t all the world know that the city of Ephesus is the guardian of the temple of the great Artemis and of her image, which fell from heaven?” (Acts 19:35)

From the reading leading up to this event, I understand that there were evil spirits and demon-possession encountered here. The text also states that, “A number who had practiced sorcery brought their scrolls together and burned them publically” (Acts 19:19).

The encyclopedia states, that “In Roman mythology Diana was the goddess of the hunt, the moon, and nature being associated with wild animals and woodland, and having the power to talk and to control animals. She was eventually equated with the Greek goddess Artemis, though she had an independent orgin in Italy. Diana was worshipped in ancient Roman religion and is revered in Roman Neopaganism (religious cults) and Stregeria (Italian witchcraft).” The Diana Artimis statue is currently located in the Vatican Museum. 1 2 3

Coincidently, you will find with an intense study on these ancient gods and goddesses they are all associated with many different names. One name will lead to a new name and that name will lead to several more identical gods/goddesses under different names. There are literally hundreds of them! Their identities start to sound very familiar. Fertility god/goddess, goddess of nature, great mother, mother earth, cosmic mother, father sun, goddess of the moon, queen of heaven, mother of all living things, god/goddess of the hunt. Although their names change and they evolve in function, you will find the original model of every god/goddess and pagan/cult figure originated with Semiramis (moon goddess/queen of heaven) and Nimrod (sun god) of ancient Babylon.

Nimrod and Tower of Babel: approximately 2200 BC

Other names also associated:

Semiramis: Astarte, Anat, Ashtoreth, Aherah, Astarte, Aphrodite, Ianna, Ishtar, Isis, Sin,  Sammu-ramat, Venus, Hera

Nimrod: Ninus, Nabul, Pan, Baal, Bel, Belus, Amrafel, Beelzebub, Marduk, Moloch, Osiris, Orion

In the bible, Nimrod is a descendant of Noah. The flood occurred in approximately 2348 BC. Noah, his wife, his three sons- Japheth, Ham, and Shem and their wives were on the ark. Ham had three sons- Cush, Mizraim, Phut and Canaan. Cush was the father of Nimrod.

“Cush was the father of Nimrod, who grew to be a mighty warrior on the earth. He was a mighty hunter before the Lord; that is why it is said, “Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the Lord. The first centers of his kingdom were Babylon, Erech, Akkad and Calah, in Shinar. From that land he went to Assyria, where he built Nineveh, Rehoboth Ir, Calah and Resen, which is between Nineveh and Calah; that is the great city.” (Genesis 10:8-12)

Now the word before פָּנִים pânîym H6440 Strong’s Concordance can mean literally “before” or “to the face of.” It could also mean “against.” He is said to have hunted other humans for sacrifice. Some interpret him as a hunter of souls as well. 4

“Nimrod is not a Hebrew name but, it is a Semitic name, therefore it is closely related to Hebrew. It comes from the Semitic root מרד (MRD) meaning “to rebel”. A person’s name was reflective of their character in the Ancient Hebrew/Semitic cultures and therefore Nimrod’s name is a good fit with his personality. It was formed by placing the letter נ (N) before the root. A common way of forming words and names from a root in Hebrew is by placing the letter מ (M) before the root; however, Semitic languages use the letter נ (N). This tells us that Nimrod is of a non-Hebrew Semitic origin.” 5

Before the flood, the Nephilim (fallen angels) were on the earth. “The Nephilim were on the earth in those days-and also afterward-when the sons of God went to the daughters of men and had children by them. They were the heroes of old , men of renown” (strong, famous men) (Genesis 6:4). 6

When we look at the family tree of Noah in Genesis chapters 10-11 we also see, by close examination, Shem was the only brother who had the Hebrew bloodline. Twice the text lists the brother’s as Shem, Ham and Japheth, but in 10:21 we see that Japheth is actually the oldest brother. “Sons were also born to Shem, whose older brother was Japheth; Shem was the ancestor of all the sons of Eber.” Then in Genesis 11:10 the family tree goes from Shem to Abram. The line of David keeps its Hebrew roots from Adam, through Noah, to Shem to Abram….etc. It is possible that Ham’s and Japheth’s wives were (at least partially) something other than Hebrew origin!

In Revelation 12 satan is referred to as a dragon and insinuates he has his own angels. “And there was a war in heaven. Michael and his angels fought against the dragon, and the dragon and his angels fought back.”(Revelation 12:7) “The great dragon was hurled down-that ancient serpent called the devil, or satan, who leads the whole world astray. He was hurled to the earth, and his angels with him” (Revelation 12:9).  “I saw satan fall like lightning from heaven.” (Luke 10:18).

Biblical references to Semiramis and Nimrod worship and son Tammuz (sun, moon, stars)

“Will you steal and murder, commit adultery and perjury, burn incense to Baal and follow other gods you have not known?” (Jeremiah 7:22)

The children gather wood, the fathers light the fire, and the women knead the dough and make cakes of bread for the Queen of Heaven. They pour out drink offerings to other gods to provoke me to anger.” (Jeremiah 7:18)

“The women added, “When we burned incense to the Queen of Heaven and poured out drink offerings to her, did not our husbands know that we were making cakes like her image and pouring out drink offerings to her?” (Jeremiah 44:19)

They forsook all the commands of the Lord their God and made for themselves two idols cast in the shape of calves, and an Asherah pole. They bowed down to all the starry hosts, and they worshiped Baal. They sacrificed their sons and daughters in the fire. They practiced divination and sorcery and sold themselves to do evil in the eyes of the Lord, provoking him to anger.” (2 Kings 17:16-17)

“And when you look up to the sky and see the sun, the moon and the stars-all of the heavenly array-do not be enticed into bowing down to them and worshipping things the Lord your God has apportioned to all the nations under heaven.” (Deuteronomy 4:19)

“If I have regarded the sun in its radiance or the moon moving in splendor, so that my heart was secretly enticed and my hand offered them a kiss of homage, then these also would be sins to be judged, for I would have been unfaithful to God on high.” (Job 31:26-28)***Inferring sun and moon worship IS NOT GOD*****

*Spoken to Nineveh-  “….all because of the wanton lust of a harlot, alluring the mistress of sorceries  who enslaved nations by her prostitution and peoples by her witchcraft.” (Nahum 3:4)

“Then he brought me to the entrance to the north gate of the house of the Lord, and I saw women sitting there mourning for Tammuz. He said to me, “Do you see this, son of man? You will see things that are even more detestable than this.” He then brought me into the inner court of the house of the Lord, and there at the entrance to the temple, between the portico and the altar, were about twenty-five men. With their backs toward the temple of the Lord and their faces toward the east, they were bowing down to the sun in the east.” …”Look at them putting the branch to their nose!” (Ezekiel 8:14-16, 17)

After Nimrod’s death Semiramis had a son, named Horus. She claimed that he was Nimrod reincarnated. Semiramis and Horus are worshipped worldwide as “Madonna and child” under many different aliases in each country.

This has been falsely labeled by many sectors as “the trinity.” One example is what Muhammad says in the Qur’an:

“People of the Book, do not go to excess in your religion, and do not say anything about God except the truth: the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, was nothing more than a messenger of God, His word, directed to Mary, a spirit from Him. So believe in God and His messengers and do not speak of a ‘Trinity’—stop, that is better for you—God is only one God, He is far above having a son, everything in the heavens and earth belongs to Him and He is the best one to trust.”
— Qur’an, sura 4 (An-Nisa), ayat 4:171 

“Those who say, “God is the Messiah, son of Mary,” have defied God. The Messiah himself said; “Children of Israel, worship God, my Lord and your Lord.” If anyone associates others with God, God will forbid him from the Garden, and Hell will be his home. No one will help such evildoers. Those people who say that God is the third of three are defying [the truth]: there is only One God. If they persist in what they are saying, a painful punishment will afflict those of them who persist. Why do they not turn to God and ask his forgiveness, when God is most forgiving, most merciful? The Messiah, son of Mary, was only a messenger; other messengers had come and gone before him; his mother was a virtuous woman; both ate food. See how clear We make these signs for them; see how deluded they are.”
— Qur’an, sura 5 (Al-Ma’ida), ayat 5:72-75

And when Allah will say, “O Jesus, Son of Mary, did you say to the people, ‘Take me and my mother as deities besides Allah ?'” He will say, “Exalted are You! It was not for me to say that to which I have no right. If I had said it, You would have known it. You know what is within myself, and I do not know what is within Yourself. Indeed, it is You who is Knower of the unseen.
— Qur’an, sura 5 (Al-Ma’ida), ayat 5:116

The followers of Jesus Christ believe that the Trinity is Father, Son (Jesus), and Holy Spirit. Three-in-one.

The trinity has been in existence since the beginning of time. In Genesis 1:26 God said, “Let us make man in our image, in our likeness…” (plural form). Genesis 1:2 at the beginning of creation it says that the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters.” God sent his only son, (John 3:16) meaning Jesus was with him. Jesus was not just a messenger. He was not just a prophet. He is God’s son. He came to Earth in human form but, is also the Messiah, the Son of God. One of the parts of three- of the trinity. He lived a sinless life so that he could die in our place, to provide forgiveness for our sins and give us eternal life with him! Mary was NOT part of the trinity. She is not God or any god. Mary was a servant of the Lord. She was not sinless/immaculate. She was a virgin, yes. The bible does not say she was sinless nor does it instruct us to pray to her, or any other saints or angels, for that matter.

The bible says that Peter and the apostles refused anyone to worship them.

“When Peter entered, Cornelius met him and fell down at his feet and worshiped him. But Peter lifted him up, saying, “Stand up; I too and a man.” (Acts 10:25-26)

“And the priest of Zeus, whose temple was at the entrance to the city, brought oxen and garlands to the gates and wanted to offer sacrifice with the crowds. But when the apostles Barnabas and Paul heard of it, they tore their garments and rushed out into the crowd, crying out, “Men, why are you doing these things? We are also men, of like nature with your, and we bring you good news, that you should turn from these vain things to a living God, who made the heaven and the earth and the sea and all that is in them.” (Acts 14:13-15)

Even the angels refused to be worshiped!

“Then the angel said to me, “Write this Blessed are those who are invited to the wedding supper of the Lamb!” And he added, “These are the true words of God.” At this I fell at his feet to worship him. But he said to me, “Don’t do that! I am a fellow servant with you and with your brothers and sisters who hold to the testimony of Jesus. Worship God! For the Spirit of prophecy who bears testimony to Jesus.” (Revelation 19:9-10)

Jesus NEVER even called Mary his mother in the bible. He ALWAYS called her woman. He also said:

“…. As Jesus was saying these things, a woman in the crowd called out, “Blessed is the mother who gave you birth and nursed you.” He replied, “Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and obey it.” (Luke 11:27-28)

The bible did acknowledge Mary as his mother but, nowhere in the bible will you find anything about praying to her, worshiping her, having idols or statues of her, nor having her intercede for us.

All throughout scripture God states he is the one true God and creator and there is no other God!

“For this is what the Lord says- he who created the heavens, he is God; he who fashioned and made the earth, he founded it; he did not create it to be empty, but formed it to be inhabited-he says: I am the Lord and there is no other.” (Isaiah 45:18)

“Before me no god was formed, nor will there be one after me. I, even I, am the Lord, and apart from me there is no savior. I have revealed and saved and proclaimed-I, and not some foreign god among you. “You are my witnesses,” declares the Lord, “that I am God. Yes, and from ancient days I am he. No one can deliver out of my hand. When I act, who can reverse it?” (Isaiah 43:10-13)

“Remember this, fix it in mind, take it to heart, you rebels. Remember the former things of long ago; I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is none like me. I make known the end from the beginning, from ancient times, what is still to come. I say: My purpose will stand, and I will do that I please.” (Isaiah 46:8-10)

“We know also that the Son of God has come and has given us understanding, so that we may know him who is true. And we are in him who is true- even in his Son Jesus Christ. He is the true God and eternal life. Dear children, keep yourselves from idols.” (1 John 5:20-21)

“The Lord will be king over the whole earth. On that day there will be one Lord, and his name the only name.” (Zechariah 14:9)

“So that all the peoples of the earth may know that the Lord is God and that there is no other.” (1 Kings 8:60)

Timeline of history and beliefs

4004 BC Adam and Eve- First church (Ephesians 5:31-32) & belief in God (creator)

2348 BC Noah and Flood 

2200 BC Nimrod -Tower of Babel (sun, moon, stars worship, witchcraft/sorcery)

300 BC Vishnu, Shiva and Brahma (Hinduism)

400-520 BC Buddha/Buddhism

30-33 AD Ministry and Crucifixion of Jesus Christ

33 AD Apostolic Ministry begins

538 AD Catholicism set up by Justinian

571 AD Mohammed/Islam

God called Abraham out of Ur to establish a new covenant with him (Abrahamic Covenant). “The Lord had said to Abram, “Leave your country, your people and your father’s household and go to the land I will show you.” (Genesis 12:1)

“Abraham believed the Lord, and he credited it to him as righteousness. He also said to him, “I am the Lord, who brought you out of Ur of the Chaldeans to give you this land to take possession of it.” (Genesis 15:6)

Joshua said to all the people, “This is what the Lord, the God of Israel, says: “Long ago your ancestors, including Terah the father of Abraham and Nahor, lived beyond the Euphrates River and worshiped other gods. But I took your father Abraham from the land beyond the Euphrates and led him throughout Canaan and gave him many descendants.” (Joshua 24:2-3)

“You are the Lord God who chose Abram and brought him out of Ur of the Chaldeans and you named him Abraham. You found his heart faithful to you, and you made a covenant with him to give to his descendants the land of Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Jebusites and Girgashites. You have kept your promise because you are righteous.” (Nehemiah 9:7-8)

This is very significant because God was calling Abram out of idol worship and establishing a new covenant with him. God was different than the gods that he worshiped previously because God spoke directly to him. Abram acted in faith and it was credited to him as righteousness. In the bible, God changes someone’s name with a new identity. It was at this point Abram became Abraham because of his new identity in God.

In the Old Testament, God spoke to people directly and mostly audibly. In the New Testament Jesus comes and speaks directly right alongside the people. After Jesus died and rose from the grave he sent the Holy Spirit at Pentecost. When we accept Jesus as our Lord and Savior the Holy Spirit comes in and dwells within us.

“And if the Spirit of him who raised Jesus form the dead is living in you, he who raised Christ form the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies because of his Spirit who lives in you.” (Romans 8:11)

“If you love me, keep my commands. And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another advocate to help you and be with you forever-the Spirit of truth. The world cannot accept him, because it neither sees him nor knows him. But you know him, for he lives with you and will be in you.” (John 14:15-17)

“All of this I have spoken while still with you. But the Advocate, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you all things and will remind you of everything I have said to you. Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not  let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid.” (John 14:26-27)

“When the Advocate comes, whom I will send to you from the Father-the Spirit of truth who goes out from the Father-he will testify about me.” (John 15:26)

This is how I know without a shadow of a doubt, that I serve the only true and creator God: The Holy Spirit

“The one who keeps God’s commands lives in him, and he in them. And this is how we know that he lives in us: We know it by the Spirit he gave us.” (1 John 3:24)

“You, dear children, are from God and have overcome them, because the one who is in you is greater than the one who is in the world. They are from the world and therefore speak from the viewpoint of the world, and the world listens to them. We are from God, and whoever knows God listens to us; but whoever is not from God does not listen to us. This is how we recognize the Spirit of truth and the spirit of falsehood.” (1 John 4:4-6)

“This is how we know that we live in him and he in us: He has given us of his Spirit. And we have seen and testify that the Father has sent his Son to be the Savior of the world.” (1 John 4:13-14)

Who is it that overcomes the world? Only the one who believes that Jesus is the Son of God. This is the one who came by water and blood-Jesus Christ. He did not come by water only, but by water and blood. And it is the Spirit who testifies, because the Spirit is truth. For there are three that testify: the Spirit, the water and the blood; and the three are in agreement.” (1 John 5:5-8)

“.. because of the truth, which lives in us and will be with us forever:” (2 John 1:2)

We know that SATAN IS A LIAR and A DECEIVER and the truth is not in him!

We see this with his first deception in the Garden of Eden. When the devil came to Eve in the form of a serpent. You will not surely die, “the serpent said to the woman. For God knows that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened and you will be like God knowing good and evil. When the woman saw that the fruit was good and pleasing to the eye, and also desirable for gaining wisdom, she took some and ate it.” (Genesis 3:4-6)

He hasn’t changed one bit since his fall from heaven. To be like God and to be God was what got him excommunicated! He is very jealous of God and wants to be worshiped and rule the world. This is the very same tactic he used in the Garden of Eden and it is the very same tactic he is using today! All these false beliefs and religions all have the same underlying theme. You are your own god. You are your own salvation. You will not die. You determine your eternity. You will be enlightened. The bible says that satan masquerades as an angel of light. Interesting how he has incorporated his worship with some of the things that give off the most light. The sun. The moon. The stars. He is also getting his worship by proxy. In those ways that he can get to your soul. In false gods and idols. In indulging in habits that self-satisfy and become obsessions. In seeking ourselves and the things in this world to bring us happiness and joy, peace and fulfillment. He has used witchcraft to create false beliefs and religions that are very alive and active today.

First, let me say, that quite frankly, doing research on witchcraft gives me the heebie geebies! I am also very hesitant to link any of these sites because the last thing I want to do is lead someone down a very bad path! I will just give you an overview from all of the things that I learned. Apparently, there are two types of witchcraft. They are called white magic and dark magic. They both use spells, prayers, chants, séances and mantras. They use many different ingredients, herbs, crystals, gems, beads and symbols. It involves worship of any of these things: the moon, sun, stars, sky, planets, cosmos/astrology, former gods and goddesses, the universe, nature, mother nature, pagan rituals, celebrations that follow moon solstice (aka wheel of the year). Visiting sacred sites or ritualistic pilgrimages that are also aligned to the wheel. Channeling other spirits, asking other spirits to intercede for you. Psychic abilities, power, energy and control come with these rituals. Love, peace and joy is also reported in seeking this “oneness” “within yourself.” There is a warning with practicing magic too, which I find interesting. It goes along with a karamic belief. If you “sew evil seeds” you reap evil back on you and if you “sew good seeds” you will reap good back on you.

Here is the problem with this, other than the fact that it is all rooted in satan, the “good” that is being talked about here is just a lure. Just like the apple was. It looked good and it was pleasing to the eye and she thought about being enlightened and then….death enters the world. These promises of reincarnation and self salvation and becoming a god are lies! Jesus came to earth in human form to be our sacrifice for sin because sin=death and hell without Jesus Christ as your Savior! Many people do not realize that the power, love, enlightment, energy, psychic ability and all those things come with a price. Submitting of your soul! You might have access to everything you want in this life, but its definitely not worth it!

Here is where satan has embedded in all his beliefs/religions. Rosaries or worry beads or prayer beads used to pray are also used by witches and all made with materials used in witchcraft!!!  Crystals, gems, rosewood and sandlewood beads! Mantras are used in Hinduism and Buddhism are prayers that are repeated over and over or a certain word or sound said over and over for example, do you know the word “Om” usually associated with meditation is the name of a hindu god? Many of the phrases given in meditation are, but they don’t have to be. Trying to “channel” things are not a good idea. Praying to dead saints and angels is not biblical! The names of the false gods do not matter they are all indirectly worship of satan. Many of the recited prayers are mantras. The hail, Mary prayer is asked to be recited an number of times over and over again for penance for sin?! That is unbiblical! When Jesus died on the cross the veil of the Temple was torn in two and we no longer live under the old covenant. We have a relationship with Jesus and pray directly to him whenever we want! He is our intercessor! We don’t need or have to pray to anyone else! If someone tells you that you have to do something to have your sins forgiven, they are a liar and the truth is not in them!

If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just and will forgive us our sins and purify us from all unrighteousness.” (1 John 1:9)

You do not need to go to a “confessional booth” and please do not say any hail, Mary’s, just pray to God and ask for forgiveness and it is forgotten. You don’t have to be a “member of a church” to be saved!

“Jesus answered, “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.” (John 14:6)

Symbols and Symbolism

The origins of the cross have been along a long time! You can find it in Hinduism, Buddhism, witchcraft and even ancient hieroglyphics (which might also be from witchcraft). The cross is not something that Jesus followers worship. It is a torture device used to kill people and was used to hang our Savior to die. Some people use it as a symbol to “show honor” for the sacrifice Jesus made for us.

The pentagram is a symbol used in witchcraft, paganism (pagan virtues), satamism, nature worship, cosmic morphology, freemason, (candle set-up used for balancing, protection and healing-heart chakra), goddess venus, planet venus, celtic religion, knowledge enlightment (brotherhood of light). Every 8 years, the planet Venus traces a pentagram across the sky that is almost perfect! (Some gods associated with venus: ishtar, isis, lucifer, aphrodite, astarte, iannana, kukra….and more). It has 6 sides, 6 points and 6 equilateral triangles. It is also known in the Jewish religion as the “star of David.” I find this interesting because there is no mention of this in the bible. I did find a pentagram symbol in the jewish mysticism sect also with the kabbalistic tree (2 pentagrams).

The Encyclopaedia Britaniaca states, “The planet Venus has probably experienced its most significant personification in the figure of the Mesopotamian goddess Inanna-Ishtar. She was viewed sometimes as female and at other times as having aspects of both genders. Through her identification with the Greek Aphrodite and the Roman Venus, Inanna-Ishtar, the queen of heaven, still survives in Roman Catholic iconography—e.g., as the Virgin Mary with the moon under her feet.” 7

As a follower and believer of Jesus Christ, I am growing greatly concerned with some of the traditions and rituals being practiced in The Roman Catholic Church. Many of them do not line up to the teachings in the bible and some of the recent announcements being made by Pope Francis further confirm the necessity of the concern. The recent firing of the conservative top theologian. Using relics to “bring religions together.” The universalism agenda and statements such as, “we’re all children of the same God.” This is a false statement and not biblical. I see the places where satan has infiltrated the Christian Church at large. You can see evidence of this also in the holidays that have hidden pagan agendas that have “double meanings.” You can see this in the false beliefs and religions that he has branched out into and embedded his agenda in different packages.

Jesus’ ministry demonstrated compassion, love and kindness to everyone! He especially made a point to reach the poor, the widows and orphans and the outcast. Most importantly he also spoke the truth! How can I truly love my neighbors around the world from other beliefs if I do not tell them the truth of the Good News Gospel? How can I watch them live in oppression by the devil when I know there is freedom for those who believe and can receive the hope that is in Jesus Christ?

It really isn’t a particular person or group of persons that we are fighting against. It is the devil himself! In light of the rioters in Ephesus that day, we know exactly what the Apostle Paul was talking about when he wrote Ephesians 6:10-18. “For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the powers of this dark world and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms. Therefore, put on the full armor of God, so that when the day of evil comes, you may be able to stand your ground, and after you have done everything, to stand. Stand firm then, with the belt of truth buckled around your waist, with the breastplate of righteousness in place, and with your feet fitted with the readiness that comes from the gospel of peace. In addition to all this, take up the shield of faith, with which you can extinguish all the flaming arrows of the evil one. Take the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. And pray in the Spirit on all occasions with all kinds of prayers and requests. With this in mind, be alert and always keep on praying for all the saints.”


***For further reading on recent DNA evidence found in mummies proving the bible account true regarding Noah’s descendants see here.


  1. (accessed 7/3/17).
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  3. (accessed 7/3/17).
  4. Faith. (1995). In Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance: New American Standard Bible. (Updated ed.)
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  7. (accessed 7/4/17).

Updated 7/8/17 






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